Bones and Underscores — WordPress theme head-to-head Update


It’s been a while since I published Part I of the Bones and Underscores a tête-à-tête. Honestly, I didn’t think writing a follow-up would take half as long as this, and lots of people have been asking what my conclusions are. I’m happy to report that after more than a year, I have reached a conclusion!

[ drumroll ]

I’m delighted to announce that the winner of the Bones vs Underscores death match is: neither / both! (Come on now, you knew there wouldn’t be an actual winner!).

So, on to the details. The reason this post has taken so long to write was that I’m only now realizing what I want to say about both themes. I’ve used _s the most since it came out — I’ve probably built 10+ themes with it as the foundation — and so it was really hard to judge Bones against that after just some light playing around. In the last few months, I’ve gotten to build a few new projects with Bones (this site is one), and I’m in a much better position to give some honest feedback about what I think of them both. Let’s get to it!


Mobile first

When I first started playing with Bones, I didn’t know what to make of the whole mobile first thing. It was my introduction to this design approach, and was much different than the typical pattern of throwing rules at media queries in the bottom of style.css and calling a site responsive. Mobile first really forces you to think about the most basic elements of your site and build up from there.

With Bones, you start with the _base.less file (if you use LESS), and build up. An easy way to think about it is to think of _base.less the same way that you would think of your typical smallest media query. So, anything you would put in that media query to affect the look of your site on phones should go in that file. When you’ve got that roughly the way you want it, you move on to the next size up: the _768up.less file. This will affect screens from 768px wide and up. Anything you want to have happen on an iPad or a desktop or a laptop, you put in here. If you’re used to tackling media queries at the end of a project, it will probably feel a bit painful to have to think about phones and laptops separately, but once you’ve spent a few hours in this mindset, it quickly becomes natural.

Even if you have no intention of ever using Bones, I’d still recommend building a site using it, just to get the benefit of being exposed to the mobile first idea. Mobile first seemed so unnecessary and almost pretentious to me last year, but now it feels 100% the right way to do things.

The big piece of getting this was realizing that mobile first refers to the process not the product. I used to think: “Meh. Only 20% of my visitors are on mobile, so why should I start with them first?”. But it’s really about thinking of the mobile part as a foundation — start with small screens and lay out all the foundational elements — colours, type, visual elements, etc — and then layer on top of that. Only add what you need as the screen size changes. It doesn’t mean designing a fully-functioning iPhone site before even thinking about your desktop site — it means only adding or layering on the bare minimum to each successive size up. If you’ve laid a solid foundation in your _base.less file, you’ll likely have add very minimally to the other screen sizes. In short: mobile-first doesn’t mean extra work.

End tangent. That was a lot more about mobile first than Bones specifically, but it was huge, huge, huge for me. Hopefully it will be a good introduction to mobile first for you as well.

Stylesheet partials

Being a fan of _s for so long (and it’s predecessor, Toolbox, for longer) I’d grown accustomed to having just one stylesheet to manage— style.less — the one-stop-shop. I loved the simplicity, I loved having everything in one place. It was great. Until I saw a better way. Bones has everything broken out into partials — there’s a partial for the base styles, another for each media query breakpoint (480, 768, 1030, 1240) as well as others for retina screens, one for normalize.css, one for print styles, one for mixins, one for the grid, etc. IE: lots of partials.

I really found this unnecessary and inefficient at first. I had to search around to see where everything was, and I was never sure if I was putting things in the right place. To be honest, it was pretty frustrating. But slowly, over time, I began to see the natural breakdown of styles. I started to get the whole mobile first thing and I swapped in my own grid system and added some of my own mixins, and pretty soon I was actually thinking in partials. It just started to make sense to have things in different files, separated by the things that concern them.


As of this writing, Bones still doesn’t implement the get_template_part() design pattern that I love so much. I really hate overloaded template files, and so I simply had to change that if I was going to continue working with Bones. In the end, I took that approach from _s and morphed it into my fork of Bones. The result is much lighter template files, and a bit of reduced repetition. It might not bother you, but it was a real deal-breaker for me.


The name

I hate the name. Having to do a complicated search and replace for the string _s has never once worked out properly for me, and so in all my old projects I’ve just left references to _s, rather than try and weed them all out. It’s probably a minor issue, but it’s been really frustrating every time I’ve gone to use it. I’m always left scratching my head, thinking “_s”? Is this the best they could come up with?

The barebones-ness

Underscores is very, very bare when you get it installed and activated. In fact, every time I activate it and go to the front page, my immediate reaction is to think that there’s something going on with my MAMP install. It’s completely bare. It does come supplied with some sample layouts, but really, if you’re starting from absolute scratch like this, you’re probably going to build your own layouts too.

Although any visual styling would probably need to be undone as you setup your new project, I still think it would make the starting point feel a bit more comfortable. Maybe it’s just the designer in me, but I always find starting a new project in Bones to be much more comfort/ing/able. I like to start with something, even if that something needs to eventually be removed. That’s just me.

But you may love it. It’s a completely clean slate, with almost no assumptions made about how it should look. That might be just what you’re happiest with.

The Buttons

The button styles are grotesque. There’s no way around those giant, hideous buttons.

Eric Meyer’s style reset

I mentioned in the original post that I really don’t like Eric Meyer’s stylesheet reset that Underscores uses. I still don’t. I prefer the normalize approach from Nicolas Gallagher, as used by Bones. Seeing my dev tools inspector window filled with line after line of needless resets just really frustrates me. There’s no need anymore.

The rest

That said, the rest of this theme is fantastic. Everything being done in this theme is being done for the right reasons and with good justifications. It’s been used and refined by all kinds of very smart developers who know WordPress inside out, so I really trust what’s going on in the template files. If you’re looking for the Right Way to develop a WordPress theme from scratch, I’d say to start there, without hesitation.

In short

You’ve probably guessed by now that I’m in the process of creating a Bones / Underscores Franken-hybrid theme. There’s just so much I love and hate with each one, that it seems natural to customize the best of both and make the perfect theme for me. I’ve started down that road here: Waterstreet on Github. You’re more than welcome to have a look and see how I’ve got things setup. A few things you might notice right away:

  1. I’m pulling in content.php via get_template_part() wherever possible.
  2. I’ve got Font Awesome hooked in and ready to go.
  3. I’m using a grid inspired by the great work over at Mapbox
  4. I’m using many of Underscore’s template tags

I’m still wondering if I should have forked Underscores added Bones, or forked Bones and added Underscores, but time will tell. At the moment, I’m fairly happy with the direction of our Franken-hybrid. Stay tuned!

Camera bucket list

I’m always thinking about new camera gear — not for the sake of just having new stuff, but because there’s so much out there I want to play with. In the interest of keeping track of all of these, I thought I’d compile a list. So, in some particular order:

  1. Hasselblad 500 C/M
  2. Canon 5D 
  3. Canon AE-1
  4. Contax G2
  5. Hasselblad XPan
  6. A Leica
  7. Fuji GW690
  8. Canonet G-III 17
  9. Fujifilm X-Pro1
  10. Rolleicord
  11. Bronica SQ-A

This list is obviously bound to grow  =)

What’s on your list?

Journalism, home maintenance and learning to code

The everyone-should-learn-to-code movement has been going strong for a few years now. It will be obvious for anyone who does code that coding isn’t for everyone. While everyone might have the potential to learn some of the basics, “coding”, no matter how you define it, involves an enormous network of deep, deep rabbit holes.

If you had asked me 5 years ago what it meant to be a good programmer, I might have said:   I donno. You need to be good at math?  Whereas now, I’d almost certainly say that the most important ingredient for the aspiring coder is persistence. The basics are there for anyone to learn — learning about strings and arrays and writing some x + y functions is possible for absolute beginners in almost any language — but the road past that, towards http and APIs and GET and POST and on and on and on, is long.

Noah Veltman has written the best piece I’ve read to date on this:

Learning to make things for the web – If I set aside my own bias as a web developer, this is probably the category I’m least sanguine about for a broad audience. I certainly think a basic working knowledge of HTML and how the web functions is necessary, but I’m willing to buy the argument that we shouldn’t send journalists who really are just looking to write too far down the web rabbit hole. This is mostly because, whereas a journalist who dabbles in using code to analyze data can get real immediate value out of a few tricks, the same is less true of the web. Once you get past the frisson of excitement you get the first time you switch from web consumer to a person who just made a real live web page, there’s a long road before you can make something complex that could go on your news organization’s website. You have to put in a lot of reps before you can wrestle with all the little gotchas of making something for public consumption on every imaginable browser and device.

And finally, as a 5-year home owner, this one paragraph resonated loudly with me:

Learning to code is not like learning calculus, with some big fixed corpus of knowledge you need to absorb. It’s more like learning to be handy around the house. You start off knowing nothing, and then as needs come up you learn bits and pieces without a grand plan, weekend by weekend, with plenty of hammered thumbs and structurally unsound carpentry. Slowly but surely, those bits and pieces coalesce into something approaching expertise. You build up the confidence to be bold and take on problems you don’t yet have any idea how to solve.

One day you’re at Home Depot buying a hammer and a carpenter’s square, and the next day (years later), you’re laying hardwood floors and rewiring a nursery. At least that’s the idea anyway.

Jack Sutton

Introducing Jack Robert Thomas Sutton. Born in the wee hours of November 9th, 2013 — right on his due date! He was the perfect size at 7lbs 3oz and a lanky 20″ long.

Jack will immediately assume assistant storekeep duties here at WaterstreetGM.

Figuring out the size of folders in your Terminal

Ever wonder how big those folders are getting on your server? Your wp-uploads folders can get huge over time, and it’s hard to figure out just how huge.

Using ls -la tells you about the files, but not the folders:


Luckily we’ve got something better. Give du -hsc * a try. It will return this pile of useful information:

I can now see the size of each file and folder in my current directory and I get a total at the end. Cool! The odds of you actually remembering that command in two weeks time though is probably zero, so let’s setup an alias with a better name:

  1. Log in to your server
  2. Type nano ~/.bash_profile
  3. Nano is a basic text editor. In that window add a new line: alias whatsize="du -hsc *"
  4. Save and close that file (ctrl+x)
  5. When Nano closes and you get back to the $ prompt, you’ll need to tell your shell about the new alias you just created. Do that with: source ~/.bash_profile.
  6. Last, go to a folder you want to inspect and simply type whatsize!